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UDC 130.2

A. Y. Morozov, Doctor of Philosophical Science, Assosiate Professor 

Kiev National University of Trade and Economics 

19 Kioto Street, Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine 

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MORAL AND RELIGIOUS MOTIVES IN THE WORKS OF J.R.R. TOLKIEN: CULTURAL CONTEXT 

 The main moral and religious themes of J. Tolkien`s novels “The Lord of rings” and “The Silmarillion” are observed in the article. It is analyzed that Tolkien followed Christian tradition, sharing st. Augustine`s conception of evil as the absence of good. It is clarified Tolkien`s anti-Nietzschean position where evil is equal to the will to power, while the good is associated with humility and serving. It is shown an author`s interpretation of Socratic classic inquiry: would people live virtuous life if they achieve omnipotence and why moral life is preferable than immoral one. According to Tolkien, human moral obligations are closely connected with the awareness of freedom and mortality which are regarded as a giftto a man, enabling to escape from senseless “badinfinity” (Hegel) of material determinant existence. In its turn, a notion of “gift” refersto metaphysical model of world that assumes divine being and his providential intervention in the course of earthly history. One of this divine providence`s manifestation is so called “eucatastrophe”, unexpected salvation from tragedy, therapeutic consolation that returns to a man the feeling of meaningfulness and joy of being. It is suggested thatsalvation can be interpreted in romantic way as coincidence point of trajectories of art and nature, where fairy tale embodies in life, and life starts to be built according to the laws of fairy tale. 

 

 Keywords: virtue, evil as absence of good,will to power, death as a gift, providence, salvation.

REFERENCES (АРА) 

1. Caldecott, S.  (2003) A Secret Fire. The Spiritual Vision Behind Tolkien. Chicago, Darton Longman and Todd Ltd. 

2. Carpenter, Humphrey, Tolkien, Christopher, eds. (1981) The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. London, George Allen & Unwin. 

3. Nietzsche, F.  (1924)  The  Joyful  Wisdom.  New-York.  Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/completenietasch10nietuoft 

4. Nietzsche, F.  (1931)  The  Genealogy  of  Morals.  New-York, Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/genealogyofmoral 

5. Nietzsche, F.  The  Antichrist.  Retrieved  from https://archive.org/details/theantichrist19322gut 

6. Plato. (2008) The Republic. London. 

7. Purtill, R.  (2003)  J. R. R. Tolkien: Myth, Morality and Religion. New-York, Ignatius press. 

8. Saint  Augustine  (Bishop  of  Hippo.)  (2006). Confessions.  Hackett Publishing. 

9. The  Lord  of  Rings  and  Philosophy,  edited  by  Gregory  Bassham and Eric Bronson (2003). Oxford, Carus Publishing company. 

10. Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977) The Lord of the Rings. London, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 

11. Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977) The Silmarillion. London, Allen and Unwin. 

12. Tolkien, J. R. R.  (1983) The Monsters and the Critics, and Other Essays. Houghton Mifflin. 

 

Corresponding author: A.Y.Morozov

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