UDC 17: 130.2 (450)
M. M. Rohozha, Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor,
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
60, Volodymyrska Street, Kyiv, 01033, Ukraine
SPECIFICS OF MORALITY AT THE EPOCH OF LIQUID MODERNITY
The author reveals specifics of the phenomenon of morality in socio-cultural circumstances of liquid modernity. Theoretical constructions of H. Arendt became the methodological grounds for the inquiry. Arendt represented the process of spinning of the web of moral interactions in the concreteness of time and space. The key value transformations of liquid modernity as conditions for the possibility of moral interactions of our time, are defined in the paper. Transformations in the field of economics (labor, employment, consumption) and public space (media, entertainments, discipline) predetermine value changes that define social and moral life of the epoch. These are: freedom from different Modernity-generated restrictions and commitments, opportunity to escape respon- sibility, and distance from those who were traditionally comprehended as a neighbor. After, contemporary orientation of an individual on happiness is consid- ered as well as the moral qualities necessary for human interactions. The contemporary direction of an individual on happiness is assigned by a hedonistic lifestyle and factor of luck with the emphasizing of contingency of the “hit of jackpot” and the directive on success with brightly expressed elements in the use of chance. Also, transformations of the quality of interactions in the process of concretization of abstract others as neighbors and distants are examined. In liquid modernity others, neighbors and distants, are defined not spatially, but axiologically. At the interpersonal level, where neighbors act, the Other manifests oneself through humanity and activates the virtue of responsibility. At the social level, others are distant people and their interaction is correlated with activa- tion of the virtue of trust. The logic in this research derives the analysis of value grounds of interactions of distant people. Then, the general outline is specified in the defining of moral interactions of distant people in global information networks as a symbol of liquid modernity. Today, the basic moral virtues are quali- ties unknown till the mid of the 20th century (responsibility) or latent for spiritual space of the Western individual till the end of the previous century (trust). These qualities are necessary for interactions of neighbors and distants in the conditions of liquid modernity alongside the virtues of active life, sacrifice, mercy in interpersonal interactions beyond the daily bustle as well as honesty, trustworthy are actual for social interactions.
Key words: liquid modernity, morality, virtue, happiness, luck, success, neighbor, distant, H. Arendt, Z. Bauman.
1. Apressyan, R. G. (2009). Obshhestvennaja moral': razvitie ponjatija [So- cial Morality: Development of the Concept]. In Obshhestvennaja moral': filosof- skie, normativno-jeticheskie i prikladnye problemy [Social Morality: Philosophic, Normative-Ethical, and Applied Problems] pp. 474–475. Moscow, Alfa-M.
2. Apressyan, R. G. (2001). Jetiket [Etiquette]. In Jetika: Jenciklopedi- cheski slovar' [Ethics: Encyclopedia] pp. 597–598. Moscow, Gardariky.
3. Arendt, H. (1999). The Human Condition. L'viv, Litopys (in Ukrainian).
4. Arendt, H. (2000). Vita Activa oder Vom tätigen Leben. Sankt- Peterburg, Aletejja (in Russian).
5. Aristotle (1983). Ethica Nicomachea. In Aristotle Writings in 4 vol. Vol. 4. Moscow, Mysl' (in Russian).
6. Bauman, Z. (2008) Liquid Modernity. Sankt-Peterburg, Piter. (in Russian).
7. Weber, M. (1999). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.Kyiv, Osnovy (in Ukrainian).
8. Guseynov, A. A. (2005). Chto lezhit v osnove morali: iskljuchitel'nost' ili ravenstvo? [What is at the Base of Morality: Exclusiveness or equality?]. Retrieved from https://iphras.ru/uplfile/ethics/RC/ed/f/17.html
9. Deleuze, G. (2003). Nietzsche and philosophy. Moscow, Ad Mar- ginem (in Russian).
10. Derrida, J. (2004). Violence and Metaphysics: An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas in Levinas E. In Selected writings. Difficult freedom, pp. 663–732. Moscow, ROSSPJEN (in Russian).
11. Il'in, A. N., Panishhev, A. L. (2014). Kul'tura obshhestva potreblenija: filosofskie, psihologicheskie, sociologicheskie aspekty [Culture of Consumer Society: Philosophical, Psychological, Sociological Aspects]. Omsk, Omsk State University Press.
12. Kornev, V. V. (2016). Social'nye seti: avtoportret govorlivogo bol'shinstva [Social Networks: Self-Portrait of Talkative Majority]. Likbez: Literaturnyj al'manah [Likbez: Literary Almanac] 109 (June). Retrieved from http://www.lik- bez.ru/archive/zine_number5900/zine_clever5905/publication5928.
13. Levinas, E. (2000). Totality and Infinity. An Essay on Exteriority. InSelected writings. Totality and Infinity pp. 66–291. Sankt-Peterburg, Univer- sitetskaja kniga (in Russian).
14. Losev, A. F. (1988). Dvenadcat' tezisov ob antichnoj kul'ture [Twelve The- ses on Antique Culture]. In Derzanie duha [The daring of spirit]. Moscow, Politizdat.
15. MacIntyre, A. (2001). After Virtue. A Study in Moral Theory. Kyiv, Duh i litera (in Ukrainian).
16. Rohozha, M. M. (2009). Socіal'na moral': kolіzії mіnіmalіzmu. Monografіja [Social Morality: Collisions of Minimalism, Monograph]. Kyiv, PARAPAN.
17. Rykov, Y. G. (2016). Struktura social'nyh svjazej v virtual'nyh soobshhestvah: sravnitel'nyj analiz onlajn-grupp social'noj seti “VKontakte” [Net- work Structure in Virtual Community: Comparative Analysis of Online-Groups VKontakte Social Network]. Dis...k-ta sotsiol. nauk [The thesis for PhD (sociology)]. Moscow: National Research University Higher School of Economics.
18. Soloukhin, V. (1982). Kameshki na ladoni [Stones on a palm]. Moscow: Molodaya gvardia.
19. Tatarkiewicz, W. (1981). Analysis of Happiness. Moscow, Progress (in Russian).
20. Frank, S. L. (1990). F. Nietzsche “jetika ljubvi k dal'nemu” [F. Nietzsche and “ethics of love to the distant”]. Sochinenija [Writings]. Moscow, Pravda, 6–64.
21. Fromm, E. (1990). Escape from Freedom. Moscow, Progress (in Russian).
22. Foucault, M. (2004). The History of Sexuality, Vol.2: The Use of Pleasure. Moscow, Akademicheskij proekt (in Russian).
23. Fukuyama, F. (2004). Trust: The Social Virtues at the Creation of Pros- perity. Moscow, OOO "Izdatel'stvo AST": ZAO NPP "Ermak" (in Russian).
24. Habermas, J. (2006). Moralbewusstsein und kommunikatives Han- deln. Sankt-Peterburg, Nauka (in Russian).
25. Khoma, O. (1999). Modernaja i postmodernaja perspektivy v filosofii kul'tury [Modern and Postmodern Perspectives in Philosophy of Culture].Dis...d-ra filos. nauk [The thesis for dorctor’s (philosophy)]. Kyiv, Institute of Philosophy of NAS of Ukraine.
26. Spengler, O. (1993). The Decline of the West. Vol. 1. Form and Ac- tuality. Moscow, Mysl' (in Russian).
27. Anscombe, G. E. M. (2008). Sovremennaja filosofija morali Modern Moral Philosophy. Logos, 1 (64), 70–91.
28. Jampol'skaja, A.V. (2011). Jemmanjujel' Levinas. Filosofija i bi- ografija [Emmanuel Levinas. Philosophy and Biography]. Kyiv: Dukh I Litera. 29. Bauman, Z. (1995). Life in Fragments: Essays in Postmodern Morality. London, Blackwell.
30. Bauman, Z. (1993). Postmodern Ethics. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, USA, Blackwell.
31. Bauman, Z. (2016, January 26). Social media are a trap / Interview by R. de Querol. ELPAIS. Retrieved from https://elpais.com/elpais/2016/01/19/ inenglish/ 1453208692_424660.html.
32. Bauman, Z. (2001). The Individualized Society. Cambridge UK; Malden, MA, Polity Press, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
33. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 94, 95–120.
34. Hare, R. M. (1955). Universalisability. Proceedings of the Aristote- lian Society, Vol. 55, 295–312.
35. Katz, J. E., Rice, R. E. (2002). Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement and Interaction. Cambridge, MIT Press.
36. Kittilson, M. C., Dalton, R. J. (2010). Virtual Civil Society: The New Frontier of Social Capital? Political Behavior, Vol. 33, 4, 625–644.
37. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of Ameri- can Community. New York, London, Touchstone Books by Simon & Schuster.
38.Rheingold,H. (1993). Virtual Community: Homesteading of the Electronic Frontier. Retrieved from http://www.rheingold. com/vc /book/intro.html (date of access: 15.04.2015).
39. Walzer, M. (1994). Moral Minimalism. Thick and Thin: Moral Argument of Home and Abroad. Notre Dame, Notre Dame University Press, 1–19.
© M. M. Rohozha, 2019