A. Y. Morozov, Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto Street, Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine,
M. M. Rohozha, Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv,
60, Volodymyrska Street, Kyiv, 01033, Ukraine
TRANSPERSONAL EXPERIENCE AS A RESPONSE TO THE CHALLENGES OF NIHILISM: THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT
The authors of the article focus their attention on the question of spirituality as an existential attitude of a person to the sacred mystery of be- ing. The ambivalence of the realm of the sacred is that being transcendental at the same time in the act of Epiphany it manifests itself in a variety of symbolic forms of personal experience. It is argued that spirituality par excellence is transpersonal experience, which communicates the personali- ty with the secret of the sacred as incomprehensible, not intellectually, but through existential involvement. In this intuitive experience of spiritual inspiration, the inexpressible truth of things beyond "facts" and "texts" is revealed to man. Transpersonal experience is constitutive in the process of a person's formation, his humanization. The transcendence of the individual takes place in it, which presupposes a constant movement of self- improvement and self-overcoming, expansion of consciousness. This can be called spiritual initiation through a gradual moral transformation of the personality through symbolic death and resurrection, the purpose of which is the realization of existential fullness and the achievement of happi- ness-bliss. Historical forms of spiritual initiation are analyzed, such as the ancient mysteries and the Christian sacrament of the Eucharist. Particu- lar attention is paid to the analysis of the Platonic understanding of inspiration-madness. It is noted that in the depths of modern secular culture, which is a consequence of the nihilistic attitude towards "disenchanting the world" and moral relativism, nostalgia for the sacred is inevitably born. Heidegger's teaching states that the roots of modern world disengagement, nihilism, and the oblivion of the sacred truth of being should be sought in the very history of being, that is, in objective "ontohistory". At the same time, it depends on the will of man whether he wants to abandon his nihilistic and cynical utilitarian-pragmatic attitude of worldview, and change the mode of existence to a useless "essential" attitude to reality. Nos- talgia for the fullness of life, for a holistic picture of the world, on one hand, and the soulless technocratic and objective nature of modern civiliza- tion, dominated by alienation and impersonality, on another hand, should be a turning point on the way to the main event of ontohistory – the re- venge of the sacred and the return of the "last god".
Key words: trans-personal experience, nihilism, relativism, moral relativism, truth of being, facts and things, silence, inspiration, spirituality, symbol, mys- teries, nostalgia
1. Wittgenstein, L. (1995). Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus; Philosophi- cal Investigations. Kyiv, Osnovy (In Ukrainian.)
2. Wittgenstein, L. (2008). Blue and Brown Books. Novosibirsk, Sib. univ. izd-vo. (In Russian).
3. Hegel,G. Aphorisms from the wastebook. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.ua/books?id=t21_DwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcove r&hl=ru#v=onepage&q&f=false. (In Russian).
4. Guénon, R. (2004). Perspectives on Initiation. In: Guénon R. The Symbolism of the Cross. Moscow, Progress-Tradicija (In Russian).
5. Deleuze, G. (1998). The Logic of Sense. Moscow, Izd-vo MGU (In Russian).
6. James, W. (1993). The Varieties of Religious Experience. Мoscow, Nauka (In Russian).
7. Diogenes Laërtius. (1986). Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philoso- phers. Мoscow, Mysl' (In Russian).
8. Lucius Apuleius. (1982). Metamorphoses or The Golden Ass. Kyiv, Dnipro (In Ukrainian).
9. Maljavin, V. (2006). Kommentarii k "Daodjeczin" [Comments to Tao- TeChing]. In Laozi. TaoTeChing. Moscow, Feorija.
10. May, R. (2001). The Meaning of Anxiety. Moscow, Klass (In Russian).
11. Minin, P. (2003). Misticizm i ego priroda [Mysticism and its es- sence]. Kyiv, Prolog.
12. Musin, M. Z. (2015). Neistovyj u vrat pojezii [Furious at the gates of poetry]. In: Solov'evskie issleddovanija [Solovyev investigations]. Vol. 3 (47). IGJeU, 67–80.
13. Оttо, W. (2019). The Homeric Gods. Sankt-Petersburg, Vladimir Dal' (In Russian).
14. Pashhenko V.I., Pashhenko N.I. (2001). Antychna literatura: pidruchnyk dlja studentiv vyshhyh navchal'nyh zakladiv [Antique literature: a textbook for university students]. Kyiv, Lybid'.
15. Pindar. (1965). Paeans. In: Hrestomatija po antichnoj literature. V 2-h t. T. 1. Grecheskaja literature [Anthology on Antique literature. In 2 volumes. For universities]. Moscow, Prosveshhenie, 111–121.
16. Plato. (2008). Dialogy [Dialogues]. Harkiv, Folio. (In Ukrainian).
17. Saharov (Sofronij). (2006). Videt' Boga kak On est' [To see the God how He is]. Svjato-Ioanno-Predtechenskij monastyr', Svjato-Troickaja Ser- gieva Lavra.
18. Silouan the Athonite. (1991). The Life and Teachings. Minsk, Pal- omnik (In Russian).
19. Sokuler, Z. Ljudvig Vitgenshtejn i ego mesto v filosofii XX veka [Ludwig Wittgenstein and his place in philosophy of the 20th century]. Re- trieved from http://www.bim-bad.ru/docs/sokuler_vittgenstein.pdf
20. Sophocles. (1990). Dramas. Moscow, Nauka (In Russian).
21. Taylor, Ch. (2018). A Secular Age. Kyiv, Duh i Litera.
22. Tillich, P. (1995). The Courage to Be. In: Tillich, P. Izbrannoe [Col-
lected writings]. Moscow, Jurist, 7–131 (In Russian).
23. Torchinov, E. (2000). Religii mira. Opyt zapredel'nogo [Religions of
the World. The experience of Transcendent]. Sankt-Petersburg, Akad- emicheskaja kniga.
24. Wilber, K. (2008). The Integral Vision. Moscow, Zolotaja amfora (In Russian).
25. Umnoe delanie. O molitve Iisusovoj. Sbornik pouchenij Svjatyh Otcov i opytnyh eja dejatelej. [Clever doing. On the Jesus Prayer. Collection of the Holy Fathers teachings and their experience actions]. (1936). Izd-vo Valaamskogo monastyrja.
26. Fideler, D. (2005). Jesus Christ, Sun of God. Ancient Cosmology and Early Christian Symbolism. Moscow, Izdatel'skij dom Sofija (In Russian).
27. Florensky, P. (1993). Iconostasis. Sankt-Petersburg, Mifril, Russka- ja kniga (In Russian).
28. Fragmenty rannih grecheskih filosofov. Ot jepicheskih teo- kosmogonij do vozniknovenija atomistiki. [Fragments by Early Greek Philos- ophers. From epic theocosmogonies to the origins of atomistics]. (1989). Vol. 1. Moscow, Nauka.
29. Frankl, V. (1990). Man's Search for Meaning. Moscow, Respublika (In Russian).
30. Heidegger, M. (1993). Die Sache. In: Heidegger, M. Vremja i bytie. Stat'i i vystuplenija [Zeit und Sein. Artikel und Reden]. Moscow, Respublika, 316–326 (In Russian).
31. Heidegger, M. What Are Poets For? Retrieved from http: //www.proza.ru/2012/02/23/632. (In Russian).
32. Herrmann, F. (2001). Der Begriff der Phänomenologie bei Heidegger und Husserl. Minsk, Propilei (In Russian).
33. Shmeman, A. (2006). Evharistija. Tainstvo Carstva [Eucharist. Sac- rament of the Kingdom]. Moscow, Granat.
34. Eliade, М. (2002). A History of Religious Ideas. Vol. 1: From the Stone Age to the Eleusinian Mysteries. Moscow, Kriterion (In Russian).
© A. Y. Morozov, M. M. Rohozha, 2021