Full text - PDF

UDC 130.2:101.1:17.023:179.9(450) 

M. М. Rohozha, Doctor of Philosophical Science, Professor

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

60, Volodymyrska Street, Kyiv, 01033, Ukraine 

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 PHILOSOPHER IN SPACE AND TIME OF CULTURE (CHRONOTOPE OF MAÎTRE À PENSER) PART II 

 The paper deals with the research of philosophic way of life as an invariant of the Western culture. The author tries to reveal the answers to the questions: What is the influence of the time and place of life on a thinking person? Is it possible to put a question in such a way? The second part of the paper givse methodological explanation for such putting the questions. Two conceptual strategies of thinking in the contemporary history of philosophy are mentioned – compartmentalism and biographical method. The latter one allows understanding of the philosophizing through research of maître à penser. Such approach made possible cultural studies prospect for a philosopher’s life in the context of unique time and space. To designate the uniqueness of time and space, the category of chronotope (M. Bakhtin) was introduced in the paper. Chronotope sets condensed signs in a definite period of time at the result of which a unique image of a thinker is born in a definite cultural space. Uniqueness of time and space sets originality of philosophical quest of a thinker. Analysis of one’s philosophizing through the prism of one’s life allows us to compare proved and practiced dimensions, and affirm a status of “maître à penser”, if these dimensions are coincided. The second part of the paper is focused on the time and space of the epoch of Modernity, where public space of the city as a place of activity for a philosopher is inseparably linked to critically directed an self-organized general public. Special attention is focused on life activity of Albert Schweitzer and Hannah Arendt. The author concludes that unlike Antiquity and Middle Ages where we were focused on the images of philosophers, Modernity deals with personalities of philosophers. Schweitzer as well as Arendt personally testify to their life and philosophical practice. The point is that definite life experience according to personal philosophy is purely important moral milestone, transforming the person to worthy exemplary. 

Key words: philosopher, public sphere, general public, scientist, maître à penser, Albert Schweitzer, Hannah Arendt, service to people, Western intellectual tradition, spiritual exercises 

 REFERENCES

1. Hadot, P. (2005). Philosophy as a Way of Life. MoscowSt.Petersburg, Stepnoj veter; Kolo (in Russian).

2. Adorno, Th. (2003). Negative Dialectics. Moscow, Nauchnyj mir (in Russian).

3. Arendt, H. (2011). Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy. St.Petersburg, Nauka (in Russian).

4. Arendt, H. (2013). Some Questions of Moral Philosophy. In Responsibility and Judgment. Moscow, Izd-vo In-ta Gajdara (in Russian).

5. Arendt, H. (2013). Prologue. In Responsibility and Judgment. Moscow, Izd-vo In-ta Gajdara (in Russian).

6. Gulyga, A. V. (1977). Kant [Kant]. Moscow, Molodaja gvardija.

7. Gusejnov, A. A. (2009). Velikie proroki i mysliteli. Nravstvennye uchenija ot Moiseja do nashih dnej [Great Prophets and Thinkers: Moral Teachings from Moses to Nowadays]. Moscow, Veche.

8. Kant, I. (1966). Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? In Sochinenija v shesti tomah [Collected Works in Six Volumes]. Vol. 6. Moscow, Mysl' (In Russian).

9. Menzhulin, V. I. (2010). Biografija filosofa jak paradoks [Biography of Thinker as Paradox]. Aktual'ni problemy duhovnosti: zb.nauk. prac', 11, 3-23.

10. Menzhulin, V. I. (2011). Istoryko-filosofs'ka biografistyka: providni tendencii' ta vihy stanovlennja [History of Philosophy Biography Studies: Leading Tendencies and Milestones of Becoming]. Naukovi zapysky NaUKMA. Philosophy and religious studies, 115, 18–25.

11. Mikeshin, M. I. (2005). Social'naja filosofija shotlandskogo Prosveshhenija [Social Philosophy of Scottish Enlightenment]. St.Petersburg, Sankt-Peterburgskij Centr istorii idej.

12. Ossowka, M. (1987). Rycar' i burzhua: Issledowanija po istorii morali [Knight and Bourgeois: Studies on the History of Morality]. Moscow, Progress.

13. Schweitzer, A. (1992). Reverence for Life. Moscow, Respublika (in Russian).

14. Schweitzer, A. (1996). Out of My Life and Thought. Moscow, Respublika (in Russian).

15. Habermas, J. (2003). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, Polity Press.

16. Israel, J. I. (2001). Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity. 1650‒1750. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 

 © M. М. Rohozha 2018